TB (tuberculosis) diet plan overview:- TB is mainly a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It majorly affects the lungs. It is curable. It’s just that you have to complete the treatment. We know that the curing process is time-consuming and cumbersome, but the intensity can be decreased by following a healthy diet. A TB patient is profoundly malnourished, so you can gauge the importance of a healthy diet in the speedy recovery of the patient. TB patients should always take care of his/her hygiene.
Nutritional requirements in patients with active TB (tuberculosis) diet
1. Energy requirements
The energy requirements of patients with active TB varies with their age, gender, their activity levels as in persons without active TB. The requirements of energy in a patient with active TB can be divided into the energy requirements appropriate to their age, gender and activity levels. The additional requirements in view of the active TB disease, and the energy requirements for the recovery of nutritional deficit.
The average requirement for energy for a sedentary adult is estimated to be 37 kcal/kg/day (man 39 kcal/kg/day and woman 35 kcal/kg/day) (49). This calculation assumes that the body-weight is in the normal range.
The additional requirements of energy in view of active TB disease are uncertain. A study in male patients with TB in India documented a 14% rise in their basal metabolic rate (50). Also in patients with active HIV disease, an additional energy requirement of 10% has been recommended. And we recommend the same in the case of patients with active TB (51). When this additional requirement is added to the average recommended intake, we arrive at a figure of approximately 40 calories/kg/ body weight per day.
The proportion of carbohydrates in the diet recommended is 55-75% of total energy intake, and this is derived from the intake of cereals, pulses, roots and tubers and vegetables. Carbohydrates are major sources of energy and patients can consume them during meals as well in snacks between meals to increase their energy intake. It is important to emphasize that the intake of complex carbohydrates (as found in low glycaemic index foods) and adequate dietary fiber are essential.
The requirements of protein would be 1.2-1.5 g/kg ideal body weight per day. The higher requirement of protein is in view of the metabolic stress related to the active infectious disease. Proteins should comprise around10-15% of the total energy intake. Protein in the diet can be of animal or plant origin. Proteins of animal origin like milk, eggs, and meat have a relatively higher proportion of essential amino acids and are therefore considered as of higher biological value.
These can comprise 15-30% of total daily energy intake. Fats are present in oils, nuts, milk and milk products, meat. Most cereals and pulses have low-fat concentrations, except bajra and Bengal gram (around 5%). Groundnuts have around 40 percent fat, apart from being a good source of protein. Fats and oils are dense in calories as each gram yields 9 kcal. In patients with reduced intakes like patients with TB, the addition of oil, ghee, and nuts to the diet can help achieve the goals of energy intake.
The recommended daily allowances of vitamins, minerals can be obtained if the patient has a diet adequate in quantity and quality, with recommended intakes of the basic food groups-cereals and pulses; vegetables and fruits; milk or eggs or meat; oils, fats, nuts. The intake of some of these ingredients of a balanced diet is suboptimal especially pulses, fruits, milk. Iron and folic acid tablets can be added to the micronutrient supplement after 2 weeks of starting Anti-TB therapy.
6.Nutritional requirements in pregnant and lactating women with TB
Pregnant and lactating women have additional requirements of energy, proteins, folic acid, calcium, and iron, in addition to the enhanced requirements related to active disease and nutritional recovery. Pregnant women need an additional 300 cal, 15 g protein, 400 micrograms of folic acid, and 1000 mg of calcium and 38 mg of iron per day. Lactating women require about 400-550 extra calories per day, 18-25 g additional protein, additional amounts of vitamin A.
Types of Food required for TB (tuberculosis) diet plan
|1. Major Nutrients||CARBOHYDRATES AND FATS:- |
1. Whole grain cereals, millets
2. Vegetable oils, ghee, butter
3. Nuts, and oilseeds
|2. Other Nutrients||Proteins, fiber, minerals,|
calcium, iron, and B-complex vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K),
essential fatty acids
|1. Major Nutrients||PROTEINS:-|
1. Pulses, nuts and some oilseeds
2. Milks and milk products
3. Meat, fish, poultry
|2. Other Nutrients||B-complex vitamins, invisible fat,|
fat, fiber, Calcium, vitamin A,
riboflavin, vitamin B12,
|1. Major Nutrients||VITAMINS AND MINERALS:-|
1. Green leafy vegetables
2. Other vegetables and fruits
3. Eggs, milk and milk products
4. Flesh foods
|2. Other Nutrients||Antioxidants |
Fibre, sugar and
Proteins and fats
What to avoid
While gaining your strength after a bout of tuberculosis and the resulting malnutrition, avoid the indulging in:
- Alcohol and tobacco
- Coffee and caffeinated drinks
- Refined products (like white rice, sugar, and maida)
- High-fat, high-cholesterol red meats
- Greasy and fried foods
- Trans-fatty acids (check ingredients and avoid “partially hydrogenated vegetable oil”)
- Avoid high in cholesterol red-meat, high in fat, and instead load up on leaner protein sources like poultry, beans, tofu, and fish.
Many medications wont to treat active TB have aspect effects which will create it tough to eat well. With some drugs, you could:
- Lose your appetite
- Feel nauseated
- Experience abdominal cramping
You can’t stop taking your TB medicine, so instead talk to your doctor about what you can do to help eliminate side effects.
Make each effort to provide your body the nutrition it must maintain a healthy weight and build up strength to destroy the TB bacteria and cut back your risk of a relapse. Eating a varied, healthy diet, and staying far from unhealthy habits, can assist you to feel higher, faster.
Patients with active TB also suffer from micronutrient deficiency, esp. iron, and folate, vitamin A, zinc, vitamin D (33-35). These micronutrient deficiencies are important as they can impair the cell-mediated immune responses (e.g. zinc, vitamin D), anemia can impair quality of life and physical function.
TB (tuberculosis) diet plan [OPTION-1]
|1. Rice flakes||60g|
|3. Olive Oil||5g|
|1. milk (low-fat)||30g|
|2. Sugar||1 tsp|
|3. Biscuits (whole-grain)||25g|
|1. milk (low-fat)||15g|
|3. sugar||1 tsp|
|Chappati (wheat flour)||2 piece|
|1. Bengal gram||30g|
|2. olive oil||10g|
|3. Dried milk powder (non-fat)||5g|
|5. Olive oil||5g|
|brinjal curry||1 cup|
[1 hour before bed]
TB (tuberculosis) diet plan [OPTION-2]
|Idly and chutney|
|1. Idli rava||90g|
|2. Black gram||60g|
|Brown rice (coocked)||60g|
Keynote:- The OPTION-1 diet plan is based on 2300 calories and the OPTION-2 diet plan is based on 2400 calories.
Sign and symptoms of TB (tuberculosis)
- Coughing that lasts three or more weeks
- Coughing-up blood
- Chest pain or pain with breathing or coughing
- Loss of appetite
- Night sweats
- Unintentional weight loss